Cardio-renal syndrome subtype 4 (CRS4) is a condition of primary chronic kidney disease that leads to reduction of cardiac function, ventricular hypertrophy, and risk of cardiovascular events. Objective: Our aim was to understand the mechanisms involved on the onset of CRS4.
We used the nephrectomy 5/6 (CKD) animal model and compared to control (SHAM). Serum biomarkers were analyzed at baseline, 4, and 8 weeks. After euthanasia, histology and immunohistochemistry were performed in the myocardium.
Troponin I (TnI) was increased at 4 weeks (W) and 8W, but nt-proBNP showed no difference. The greater diameter of cardiomyocytes indicated left ventricular hypertrophy and the highest levels of TNF-α were found at 4W declining in 8W while fibrosis was more intense in 8W. Angiotensin expression showed an increase at 8W.
TnI seems to reflect cardiac injury as a consequence of the CKD however nt-proBNP did not change because it reflects stretching. TNF-α characterized an inflammatory peak and fibrosis increased over time in a process connecting heart and kidneys. The angiotensin showed increased activity of the renin-angiotensin axis and corroborates the hypothesis that the inflammatory process and its involvement with CRS4. Therefore, this animal study reinforces the need for renin-angiotensin blockade strategies and the control of CKD to avoid the development of CRS4.
Keywords: doenças renais; síndrome cardiorrenal; análises imunoistoquímicas, marcadores cardíacos;
Chronic diseases account for the majority of deaths in Brazil. These include
hypertension (SAH) and
This study aimed to validate the data of an electronic health record and to point out characteristics of the profile of these users in relation to clinical quality indicators for a pre-dialytic CKD.
Retrospective cohort, August/2010 to December/2014. Included users > 18 years, with at least two queries. Variables analyzed: sociodemographic, underlying disease, main medications and main clinical indicators of control. A descriptive analysis was performed and the percentage of users was evaluated in the goals at admission and at the end of the study.
Exported, converted and validated data of 1,977 users with average follow-up time of 21 months. Of these, 51.4% were men, 58% were > 64 years of age and 81.6% were overweight. The main medications in use were diuretics (82.9%), BRAT (62%), Statin (60.7%) and ACE inhibitors (49.9%). The percentage of users with a decline in the glomerular filtration rate was 33.7%. Regarding glycated hemoglobin, users with CKD and DM, 36% were within the initial goal and 52.1% of the final. Blood pressure was at the target for admission at 34.3% and 49.8% at the end of follow-up.
Validated data are of vital importance for health managers to monitor users. The population of this study is predominantly elderly, obese, requiring multi-professional care to slow the progression of the disease and decrease morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: Nefropatias; Registros de Doenças; Epidemiologia;
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide, with costs that can be impeditive.
To establish the expenses of the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS), with hospitalizations due to CKD and related diseases; evaluating expenses with renal replacement therapy (RRT).
We have assessed the values paid by the SUS in the triennium 2013-2015, for estimating annual expenses with CKD treatment and hospitalization, associated diseases, and exams.
There was an increase in hospitalization by all causes in Brazil during this triennium. CKD and associated diseases corresponded to 1.82% and 5.79% of hospitalizations due to all causes in Brazil, and 2.87% and 10.10% of all expenses, respectively. Kidney grafts from deceased donors corresponded to 76% of hospitalizations and 80% of expenses with transplantation. There was a decrease in transplantation from living donors. There was an increase in the number of exams of 11.94% and of 10.95% in the expenses. There was a decrease in the number of procedures and expenses in intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) and related procedures; but other procedures increased. Hemodialysis (3 weekly sessions) corresponded to 95.96% of procedures and 96.07% of expenses with dialysis in general.
Renal diseases and some of the main related diseases corresponded to 12.97% of the expenses in the triennium 2013-2015, and RRT to more than 5% of the SUS expenses with medium and high complexity healthcare. Such high expenses determine great concerns on the future maintenance of treatment for stage-5 CKD in Brazil and countries in similar or worse conditions of development.
Keywords: Insuficiência Renal Crônica; Atenção à Saúde; Controle de Custos; Sistemas de Saúde; Hospitalização; Base de Dados;
Knowledge of validated primary causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is extremely relevant in the realm of public health. The literature lacks validated studies on the primary causes of ESRD.
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the causes of ESRD in a State Capital in Northeastern Brazil.
This cross-sectional study was based on the analysis of medical records of patients on hemodialysis at five specialized centers in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Deaths and patients referred to other centers outside Fortaleza were excluded from the study. The data of 830 patients were initially collected, but 818 remained enrolled after the exclusion criteria were applied, the equivalent to 48% of the patents on dialysis in the city.
61.1% of the patients were males. Twenty-two percent of all enrolled individuals were aged 60-69 years. Patient mean age was 55.7 ± 16 years. The most common validated cause of ESRD was unknown (35.3%), followed by diabetes mellitus (26.4%), adult polycystic kidney disease (6.2%), graft failure (6.2%), obstructive uropathy (5.7%), and primary glomerulonephritis (5.3%). Before validation, primary hypertension was the most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (22.9%), decreased to 3.8% after validation.
The data contradicted national studies reporting primary hypertension as the main cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A high rate of unknown causes and categorization bias were observed mainly in relation to primary hypertension as a cause of CKD, which affects the overall prevalence of causes of ESRD in patients on dialysis.
Keywords: insuficiência renal crônica; falência renal crônica; epidemiologia; estudos de validação;
An arteriovenous (AV) access flow (Qa) of 400 mL/min is usually sufficient for an effective hemodialysis (HD), but some accesses continue developing and become high flow accesses (HFA). Some authors postulated that an HFA might shift a significant portion of dialyzed blood from the cardiac output, which could decrease HD efficiency and lead to volume overload.
The aim of our study was to evaluate if HFA is associated with reduced HD efficiency and/or volume overload in prevalent HD patients.
We performed a 1-year retrospective study and assessed HD efficiency by the percentage of sessions in which the Kt/V > 1.4 and volume overload by bioimpedance spectroscopy.
The study included 304 prevalent HD patients with a mean age of 67.5 years; 62.5% were males, 36.2% were diabetics, with a median HD vintage of 48 months. Sixteen percent of the patients had a HFA (defined as Qa > 2 L/min). In multivariate analysis, patients with HFA presented higher risk of volume overload (OR = 2.67, 95%CI = 1.06-6.71) and severe volume overload (OR = 4.06, 95%CI = 1.01-16.39) and attained dry weight less frequently (OR = 0.37, 95%CI = 0.14-0.94). However, HFA was not associated with lower Kt/V.
Our results suggest that patients with HFA have higher risk of volume overload. However, contrarily to what has been postulated, HFA was not associated with less efficient dialysis, measured by Kt/V. Randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify these questions.
Keywords: Fístula Arteriovenosa; Débito de sangue do acesso; Eficiência;
Currently, there is no specific immunosuppressive protocol for hepatitis C (HCV)-positive renal transplants recipients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the conversion effect to everolimus (EVR) on HCV in adult kidney recipients.
This is an exploratory single-center, prospective, randomized, open label controlled trial with renal allograft recipients with HCV-positive serology. Participants were randomized for conversion to EVR or maintenance of calcineurin inhibitors.
Thirty patients were randomized and 28 were followed-up for 12 months (conversion group, Group 1 =15 and control group, Group 2 =13). RT-PCR HCV levels reported in log values were comparable in both groups and among patients in the same group. The statistical analysis showed no interaction effect between time and group (p value G*M= 0.852), overtime intra-groups (p-value M=0.889) and between group (p-value G=0.286). Group 1 showed a higher incidence of dyslipidemia (p=0.03) and proteinuria events (p=0.01), while no difference was observed in the incidence of anemia (p=0.17), new onset of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (p=1.00) or urinary tract infection (p=0.60). The mean eGFR was similar in both groups.
Our study did not show viral load decrease after conversion to EVR with maintenance of antiproliferative therapy.
Keywords: Imunossupressão; Hepatite C; Transplante Renal; Carga Viral;
The risk of death after kidney transplant is associated with the age of the recipient, presence of comorbidities, socioeconomic status, local environmental characteristics and access to health care.
To investigate the causes and risk factors associated with death during the first 5 years after kidney transplantation.
This was a single-center, retrospective, matched case-control study.
Using a consecutive cohort of 1,873 kidney transplant recipients from January
1st 2007 to December 31st 2009, there were 162
deaths (case group), corresponding to 5-year patient survival of 91.4%. Of
these deaths, 25% occurred during the first 3 months after transplant. The
most prevalent cause of death was infectious (53%) followed by
cardiovascular (24%). Risk factors associated with death were history of
diabetes, dialysis type and time, unemployment, delayed graft function,
number of visits to center, number of hospitalizations, and duration of
hospital stay. After multivariate analysis, only time on dialysis, number of
visits to center, and days in hospital were still associated with death.
Patients who died had a non-significant higher number of treated acute
rejection episodes (38%
This analysis confirmed that in this population, infection is the leading cause of mortality over the first 5 years after kidney transplantation. Several demographic and socioeconomic risk factors were associated with death, most of which are not readily modifiable.
Keywords: Transplante de Rim; Mortalidade; Fatores de Risco; Fatores Socioeconômicos;
The progress in kidney transplantation has been evident over the years, as well as its benefits for patients.
To evaluate the 1.000 kidney transplants performed at the Botucatu Medical School University Hospital, subdividing the patients in different periods, according to the current immunosuppression, and evaluating the differences in graft and patient survival.
Retrospective cohort analysis of the transplants performed between 06/17/87 to 07/31/16, totaling 1,046 transplants, subdivided into four different periods: 1) 1987 to 2000: cyclosporine with azathioprine; 2) 2001 to 2006: cyclosporine with mycophenolate; 3) 2007 to 2014: tacrolimus with antimetabolic; and 4) 2015 to 2016: tacrolimus with antimetabolic, with increased use of the combination of tacrolimus and mTOR inhibitors.
There was an increase in the mean age of recipients and increase in deceased
donors and their age in the last two periods. There was a reduction in graft
function delay, being 54.3% in the fourth period, compared to 78.8% in the
There was a significant increase in the number of transplants, with evolution in graft survival, despite the worsening in the profiles of recipients and donors.
Keywords: Transplante de Rim; Imunossupressão; Análise de Sobrevida; Evolução Clínica;
Although there is a general agreement on the recommendation for reduced salt intake as a public health issue, the mechanism by which high salt intake triggers pathological effects on the cardio-renal axis is not completely understood. Emerging evidence indicates that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the main target of high Na+ intake. An inappropriate activation of tissue RAAS may lead to hypertension and organ damage. We reviewed the impact of high salt intake on the RAAS on the cardio-renal axis highlighting the molecular pathways that leads to injury effects. We also provide an assessment of recent observational studies related to the consequences of non-osmotically active Na+ accumulation, breaking the paradigm that high salt intake necessarily increases plasma Na+ concentration promoting water retention
Keywords: Renina; Angiotensina II; Sódio na Dieta; Rim; Coração;
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) subjects. In addition to the traditional risk factors that are common in these individuals, genetic factors are also involved, with emphasis on single nucleotide polymorphs (SNPs). In this context, the present study aims to systematically review the studies that investigated the polymorphisms associated with cardiovascular risk in this population. In general, the SNPs present in HD individuals are those of genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress and vascular calcification, also able of interfering in the cardiovascular risk of this population. In addition, polymorphisms in genes related to recognized risk factors for CVD, such as dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, also influence cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: Insuficiência Renal Crônica; Inflamação; Estresse Oxidativo; Calcificação Vascular; Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda; Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único;
Hydralazine is a direct-acting vasodilator, which has been used in treatment for hypertension (HTN) since the 1950s. While it is well known to cause drug-induced lupus (DIL), recent reports are indicating the emergence of the drug-induced anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (DIV). Herein, we describe two patients (aged 57 and 87 years) who presented with severe acute kidney injury (AKI), proteinuria, and hematuria. Both were receiving hydralazine for the treatment of hypertension. ANCA serology was positive in both patients along with anti-histone antibodies (commonly seen in drug-induced vasculitis). Renal biopsy revealed classic crescentic (pauci-immune) glomerulonephritis in these patients and hydralazine was discontinued. During the hospital course, the 57-year-old patient required dialysis therapy and was treated with steroids and rituximab for the ANCA disease. Renal function improved and the patient was discharged (off dialysis) with a serum creatinine of 3.6 mg/dL (baseline = 0.9 mg/dL). At a follow-up of 2 years, the patient remained off dialysis with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) (stage IIIb). The 87-year-old patient had severe AKI with serum creatinine at 10.41 mg/dL (baseline = 2.27 mg/dL). The patient required hemodialysis and was treated with steroids, rituximab, and plasmapheresis. Unfortunately, the patient developed catheter-induced bacteremia and subsequently died of sepsis. Hydralazine can cause severe AKI resulting in CKD or death. Given this extremely unfavorable adverse-event profile and the widespread availability of alternative anti-hypertensive agents, the use of hydralazine should be carefully considered.
Keywords: glomerulonefrite; Lúpus; glomeruloesclerose, segmentar focal;
Keywords: Insuficiência Renal Crônica; Trombocitopenia; Síndrome Nefrótica; Doenças Genéticas Inatas; Doenças Raras;
About four decades ago, the relationship between dialysis-dementia and aluminum (Al) began to be established. The restriction of drugs containing Al and improvements on water quality used for dialysis resulted in the clinical disappearance of Al intoxication. However, high prevalence of Al deposition in bone tissue from Brazilian dialysis patients is still being detected. Through the case report of a patient on hemodialysis (HD) for one year, presenting significant Al deposition in bone tissue, we speculated if this problem is not being underestimated. We used extensive investigation to identify potential sources of Al exposure with a careful review of medication history and water quality controls. Al concentration was measured by different methods, including mass spectrometry, in poly-electrolyte concentrate solutions and solution for peritoneal dialysis, in an attempt to elucidate the possible sources of contamination. The objective of this case report is to alert the medical community about a potential high prevalence of Al deposition in bone tissue and to discuss the possible sources of contamination in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Keywords: Doença Renal Crônica; Diálise; Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas; Alumínio;
In this article, we describe the development of a simple and inexpensive simulation phantom as a surrogate of human hydronephrosis for the identification of urinary tract obstruction at bedside to be used in undergraduate training of medical students.
Keywords: ultrassonografia; hidronefrose; modelo educacional;