Professor José Silvério Santos Diniz, an exponent of the Brazilian Pediatric Nephrology, died on 23 May, 2011. This editorial is a brief description of the career of this great Brazilian teacher, physician and researcher.
Keywords: Pediatrics. Teaching. Research. Nephrology.;
Chronic kidney failure (CKF) is a clinical syndrome due to the slow, progressive and irreversible loss of the glomerular filtration rate. CKF may be associated with several oral manifestations, such as xerostomia, uremic stomatitis and periodontitis, diagnosed as clinical attachment loss (CAL). 92 patients, from the Prontorim Hemodialysis Clinic of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, were investigated. Only 34 patients (37%) were eligible for periodontal investigation, which consisted of CAL measurement (values grater than 2 mm diagnosing periodontitis). CAL measurements ranged from 1.31 to 5.27 mm (2.30 ± 0.96 mm). 18 (52.9%) patients had smaller than 2 mm CAL, while 16 (47.1%) had periodontitis. Tooth loss and considerable CAL were observed in this study. Nevertheless, factors such as social status should be considered in further investigations.
Keywords: Periodontitis. Renal dialysis. Renal insufficiency.;
Objective: To describe the demographic, clinical and laboratory data of patients with urolithiasis in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Patients and Methods: Secondary data were collected from the medical records of 197 patients with urolithiasis, during the period 1996-2006. Clinical evaluation and 24-h urine collection for measurements of urinary volume, creatinine, calcium, phosphorous, uric acid, sodium, potassium and magnesium were performed. Density and pH value were determined in a first-voided morning urine sample. Cystinuria was detected by stone and/or crystal analysis. Results: The male/female ratio was 1:1.7. The average age of symptom onset was 35.8 ± 13.3 years, with no significant difference between the genders. The most affected age range was 20-39 years (56.3%). Patients reported renal colic (72.4%), emergency room attendance (69.5%), a single episode of lithiasis (46.7%) or recurrent episodes (53.3%). The right kidney was most often affected in women (44.4%), while men suffered predominantly from bilateral lithiasis (39.7%). The main metabolic changes observed were hypernatriuria (80.7%), hypercalciuria (48.7%), hyperuricosuria (17.3%), and cystinuria in 5 patients (2.5%). The average pH value and density were 5.74 ± 0.59 and 1015.6 ± 7.1, respectively. Urinary volume was low in 43% of the cases. Conclusion: Lithiasis was most prevalent in adults aged 20-39 years, and affected predominantly women in our region. The most frequent metabolic changes, in descending order, were hypernatriuria, followed by hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria, associated with low fluid intake.
Keywords: Lithiasis. Nephrolithiasis. Urolithiasis.;
Introduction: Studies have shown that interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) of hemodialysis (HD) patients is influenced by many factors, a high IDWG negatively affecting the blood pressure (BP) of this population. Objective: To evaluate the relation of clinical, demographic and nutritional factors and the IDWG of HD patients. Methods: Crosssectional study of 278 HD (54% males; age=54.4 ± 14.4 years) from 6 dialysis centers in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The means of percentage interdialytic weight gain (%IDWG) and BP during a four-week period were calculated. Body mass index (BMI) and the 7-point subjective global assessment (SGA) scale were used to assess nutritional status. Results: The means were: %IDWG 4.06 ± 1.55%, pre-HD BP 140 ± 50 / 99 ± 25 mmHg, and post-HD BP 110 ± 27 / 78 ± 10 mmHg. %IDWG inversely correlated with age and BMI and directly correlated with pre-HD systolic BP and time on HD. Women and patients without diabetes mellitus had higher %IDWG. Only the younger subgroup of patients with SGA-defined malnutrition had higher %IDWG than well-nourished ones. When malnutrition was BMI-defined, higher %IDWG was found in the whole study population and in the female and younger age subgroups. 24% of the patients had increased %IDWG (> 5%) and, when compared with those with adequate %IDWG, had inadequate and higher levels of systolic BP (144 ± 21 versus 138 ± 20 mmHg, p < 0.05), were younger and had lower BMI. Conclusion: These results showed that %IDWG of HD patients was influenced by gender, time on dialysis, age and nutritional status, and that high %IDWG adversely affected the BP of this population.
Keywords: Dialysis. Blood Pressure. Nutritional status. Weight gain.;
Introduction: Cystatin C is considered a promising test to evaluate glomerular filtration rate, since it has characteristics of an ideal endogenous marker, being similar or even superior to serum creatinine according to some studies. However, it is possible that some factors (as corticotherapy) could have an influence on serum cystatin C levels regardless of the glomerular filtration rate. The aim of this study was to investigate if different doses of glucocorticoid could have an influence on serum cystatin C levels in lupus nephritis patients. Methods: We evaluated 42 patients with lupus nephritis that performed 109 different blood collections; their mean age was 37.7 ± 13.1 years old, and 88% were female; the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was of 61.9 ± 20.0 mL/min. Patients were divided according to their glucocorticoid dose in two groups: A - high (pulse therapy with methylprednisolone and prednisone > 0.5 mg/kg/d, n = 14) versus B - low doses (prednisone < 0.5 mg/kg/d, n = 28). Serum creatinine levels were used as parameters for renal function comparison. Cystatin C was determined by an in-house methodology, using Luminex system flow citometry. Results: Considering these groups, cystatin C levels were different only in the second visit (p = 0.106). But, when the serum creatinine levels were considered in the same groups, a marginally significant difference among them (p = 0.070) was observed, which suggested that the difference in cystatin C levels between the groups was caused by their respective glomerular filtration rate. There was not any difference between those groups that received or did not receive pulse therapy. Conclusion: Although some previous studies have shown that glucocorticoid has an influence on serum cystatin C levels, we have not observed such interference in the lupus nephritis patients submitted to corticotherapy.
Keywords: Glucocorticoids. Cystatin C. Creatinine. Glomerular filtration rate. Lupus nephritis.;
Introduction: Arterial hypertension is a worldwide public health problem and one of the major risk factors for chronic kidney disease development. Methods: In order to compare the Cockcroft- Gault (CG) equation with serum creatinine and 24-hour creatinine clearance (CrCl) for the screening of reduced renal function, a cross-sectional study of 198 hypertensive patients was undertaken at a basic health unit. The demographic, nutritional, and clinical laboratory data were analyzed. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine and 24- hour CrCl. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was also estimated according to Cockcroft-Gault equation. Results: The patients had a mean age of 60.6 ± 11.6 years-old, and 73.7% were female. The prevalence of serum creatinine > 1.2 mg/dL was 7.6% and the prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/minute was 24.2%, when evaluated by the CrCl and CG equation. Reduced GFR was observed in older male patients, with lower body mass index, normal values of fasting blood glucose, and higher levels of serum uric acid and of systolic blood pressure. Discussion: The prevalence of decreased renal function among hypertensive patients varies considerably, depending on the laboratory investigation used. CG-estimated CrCl has shown to be more accurate than serum creatinine for assessing GFR. Conclusions: CG-estimated CrCl was highly similar to 24-hour CrCl, proving to be a reliable primary care screening test for the early diagnosis of renal impairment in hypertensives.
Keywords: Hypertension. Kidney failure; chronic. Glomerular filtration rate.;
Introduction: Hypertensive nephroangiosclerosis is a major cause of chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis. Clinical characteristics that distinguish a patient with hypertension that evolves to nephroangiosclerosis from another that keeps stable renal function are not well established because of the difficulty in ensuring that the carriers of that disease are not actually suffering from glomerulonephritis or other kidney diseases. Thus, our objective was to identify clinical or laboratory features that distinguish the patients who developed chronic renal failure from hypertension, confirmed by renal biopsy, of those who, even with arterial hypertension, did not develop nephroangiosclerosis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective comparison of clinical and laboratory data of 15 patients with hypertensive nephroangiosclerosis confirmed by renal biopsy and 15 hypertensive patients from the outpatient clinic of the Hypertension Center, whose lack of nephroangiosclerosis was defined as absence of proteinuria. The groups were matched for age and gender. Results: Among the evaluated variables, duration of hypertension, pulse pressure, blood glucose, uric acid, creatinine and frequency of use of diuretics and sympatholytic differed statistically between the two groups. All these variables were higher in nephroangiosclerosis patients. Conclusion: This study links biopsy proven hypertensive nephroangiosclerosis with metabolic features, hypertension intensity and duration, corroborating the idea that primary prevention of hypertension, postponing its initiation, a more intensive hemodynamic control (when hypertension is well established) and metabolic control of these patients have the potential to prevent hypertensive nephroangiosclerosis.
Keywords: hypertension. kidney failure. chronic. hyperuricemia. creatinine. hyperglycemia.;
Introduction: C4d is a marker of antibody- mediated rejection (ABMR) in kidney allografts, although cellular rejection also have C4d deposits. Objective: To correlate C4d expression with clinico-pathological parameters and graft outcomes at three years. Methods: One hundred forty six renal transplantation recipients with graft biopsies by indication were included. C4d staining was performed by paraffin-immunohistochemistry. Graft function and survival were measured, and predictive variables of the outcome were determined by multivariate Cox regression. Results: C4d staining was detected in 48 (31%) biopsies, of which 23 (14.7%) had diffuse and 25 (16%) focal distribution. Pretransplantation panel reactive antibodies (%PRA) class I and II were significantly higher in C4d positive patients as compared to those C4d negative. Both glomerulitis and pericapillaritis were associated to C4d (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). The presence of C4d in biopsies diagnosed as no rejection (NR), acute cellular rejection (ACR) or interstitial fibrosis/ tubular atrophy (IF/TA) did not impact graft function or survival. Compared to NR, ACR and IF/TA C4d-, patients with ABMR C4d+ had the worst graft survival over 3 years (p = 0.034), but there was no difference between ABMR versus NR, ACR and IF/TA that were C4d positive (p = 0.10). In Cox regression, graft function at biopsy and high %PRA levels were predictors of graft loss. Conclusions: This study confirmed that C4d staining in kidney graft biopsies is a clinically useful marker of ABMR, with well defined clinical and pathological correlations. The impact of C4d deposition in other histologic diagnoses deserves further investigation.
Keywords: Kidney transplantation. Complement Cd4. Graft survival. Graft rejection. Humoral rejection.;
Introduction: Increased body mass index and the metabolic syndrome are associated with decreased renal function and the development of end-stage kidney disease. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the overlap between an experimental model of obesity and genetic hypertension on the blood pressure, body weight and metabolic and kidney parameters of rats. Methods: We studied male rats of the Wistar (WST) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) strains. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) was administered in the neonatal period to both strains, to make up two groups: WST + MSG and SHR + MSG. Animals in the control groups (WST and SHR) received saline. After completing three months of life, a 12-week follow-up period ensued, during which bi-weekly measurements of body weight (BW) and tail-cuff blood pressure (TCBP) were obtained. Microalbuminuria was analyzed at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. At the end of the follow-up period, blood was obtained for fasting glucose, plasma creatinine, and lipid profile determinations. The kidneys were removed, stained, and the glomerular sclerosis index was calculated. Results: The administration of MSG produced higher percentage body weight gain, higher fasting blood glucose and a higher degree of glomerular injury in WST-MSG and MSG-SHR rats, compared to their controls. Greater urinary albumin excretion was observed in SHR + MSG rats, when compared to SHR. There was no statistical difference in the TCBP, creatinine, and lipid profile. Conclusions: The association of neuroendocrine obesity and arterial hypertension promoted morphological and functional changes in the glomerulus. These changes were more severe than those observed in hypertensive-only rats.
Keywords: Obesity. Sodium glutamate. Rats; Inbred SHR. Albuminuria. Kidney glomerulus.;
Introduction: In the current era of scarcity of kidneys available for transplantation, and chronic anti-HLA-mediated rejection as a main cause of graft loss, continuous demonstration of the long-term survival of grafts from living unrelated kidney donors (LURD) is paramount. Objective: Analyze long-term kidney graft and patient outcomes using LURD, and compare them with living related donors (LRD). Methods: We analyzed the 389 first renal transplantations performed with a living donor (281 LRD and 108 LURD), in a single center, from January 1998 through December 2007. Results: There were no significant differences between LRD and LURD as refers to patient survival (89.1% vs. 84.7%, p = 0.40, respectively) and graft survival (81.1% vs. 68.9%, p = 0.77, respectively), 10 years posttransplantation. On Cox proportional regression model of multivariate analysis, panel reactive antibodies (PRA) > 10% and the occurrence of acute rejection in the first year posttransplantation were the only independent predictors of graft loss (HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.35 - 4.78; p < 0.05 and HR 4.1, 95% CI 2.04 - 4.78; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: LURD are an important source of organs for renal transplantation, with results similar to those obtained with LRD, regardless of HLA matching.
Keywords: Kidney transplantation. Living donors. Graft survival.;
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious public health problem whose prevalence has increased in the last few years. Its progression is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Several factors are associated with the onset and progression of CKD, such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Beyond these factors, there is evidence of a pathophysiological role for inflammation in CKD. Several cytokines and chemokines have been detected in the plasma and urine of patients at early stages of CKD, and have also been related to CKD complications. The expression of these mediators and renal injury may be influenced by drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins and antagonists of cytokine receptors. Modulation of the immune-inflammatory response can become a target for CKD treatment. The aim of this study was to review the scientific evidence on the role of inflammation in CKD, especially the effects of cytokines and chemokines.
Keywords: Cytokines. Chemokines. Inflammation. Kidney failure; chronic.;
V Diretrizes Brasileiras de Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial (MAPA) e III Diretrizes Brasileiras de Monitorização Residencial da Pressão Arterial (MRPA)
The present letter to the editor shows the other aspect of Hepatitis B vaccination in hemodialysis patients.
Keywords: Renal dialysis. Vaccination. Hepatitis B.;
Keywords: Renal insufficiency; chronic. Renal dialysis. Vaccination. Hepatitis B virus.;