The increased burden of CKD in disadavantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities, and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practised in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expanding deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.
Numerous studies examined the associations between socio-demographic, economic and individual factors and chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcomes and observed that the associations were complex and multifactorial. Socioeconomic factors can be evaluated by a model of social vulnerability (SV).
To analyze the impact of SV on the outcomes of predialysis patients.
Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from a cohort of patients with predialysis stage 3 to 5 who were treated by an interdisciplinary team (January 2002 and December 2009) in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Factor, cluster and discriminant analysis were performed in sequence to identify the most important variables and develop a model of SV that allowed for classification of the patients as vulnerable or non-vulnerable. Cox regression was performed to examine the impact of SV on the outcomes of mortality and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT).
Of the 209 patients examined, 29.4% were classified as vulnerable. No significance difference was found between the vulnerable and non-vulnerable groups regarding either mortality (log rank: 0.23) or need for RRT (log rank: 0.17). In the Cox regression model, the hazard ratios (HRs) for the unadjusted and adjusted impact of SV on mortality were found to be 1.87 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-5.41) and 1.47 (CI: 0.35-6.0), respectively, and the unadjusted and adjusted impact of need for RRT to be 1.85 (CI: 0.71-4.8) and 2.19 (CI: 0.50-9.6), respectively.
These findings indicate that SV did not influence the outcomes of patients with predialysis CKD treated in an interdisciplinary center.
Keywords: diálise renal; falência renal crônica; sobrevida; vulnerabilidade social;
Contrast induced nephropathy is the third most prevalent preventable cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. It defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine ≥ 0.5 mg/dL and relative ≥ 25% increase.
We studied the risk factors to intravenous injection contrast nephropathy after computed tomography.
We studied 400 patients prospectively.
The incidence of contrast induced nephropathy, with an absolute or a relative
increase were 4.0% and 13.9%, respectively. Diabetes and cardiac failure
were independent risk factors for CIN a relative increase de serum
creatinine (O.R.: 3.5 [95% CI: 1.92-6.36],
We showed association between uses of intravenous injection contrast after computed tomography with acute injury renal, notably with diabetes and heart failure.
Keywords: fatores de risco; nefropatia induzida por contraste; tomografia;
Chronic kidney disease is defined by the progressive loss of renal function. Interventions in early stages significantly improve the prognosis of patients with chronic kidney disease, reducing the mortality, and many studies show that early nephrologist referral reduces the mortality rate.
To analyze the characteristics of the patients in dialysis and the time between the first consultation in the dialysis clinic and the beginning of the dialytic program.
It was made a cohort retrospective study with two analysis axis: the social and epidemiological characteristics of the patients in hemodialysis and the time between the first consultation in the clinic and the beginning of the dialytic program. Analytical and descriptive methods where used to compare these data with the early referral and the mortality 12 months after the dialysis onset.
One hundred and one patients were analized. The mortality rate of the early
and lately referred patients was 47.8% and 20.5%, respectively (HR = 2.38;
IC = 1.06-5.36;
The referral timing was predominantly late. The late referral was associated with a greater mortality. Other variables associated with a greater mortality were age of 70 or more, presence of diabetes and the use of catheter by the dialysis onset.
Keywords: dialysis; renal insufficiency, chronic; survival analysis;
To compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without acute kidney injury (AKI), to evaluate the incidence and mortality of AKI and predictors of AKI and death in patients hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).
A retrospective study analyzed 152 patients admitted to a single ICU. We assessed age, gender, reason for hospitalization, risk factors for ARF, laboratory data, the need for renal therapy substitutive and mortality. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and RIFLE were recorded on the day of ICU admission. We determined the incidence of AKI, mortality and the independent predictors of AKI and death using logistic regression model.
Mean age was 57.1 ± 20 years, ranging between 19 to 88 years, and 60.1% were male. Non-dialysis dependent AKI occurred in 81 patients (53.2%) while the ARF requiring dialysis occurred in 19 patients (12.4%). The overall mortality rate in the ICU was 35.9%, whereas the mortality rate in patients with non-dialysis dependent AKI was 43.2% and the IRA with dialysis of 84.2%. In multivariate analysis, invasive mechanical ventilation, elevated creatinine and urea at admission were independent risk factors for AKI, whereas clinical diagnosis, invasive mechanical ventilation, increased lactate and urea and hypernatremia were independent risk factors for ICU mortality.
The incidence and mortality of AKI in ICU were high in this study, despite the advances that have been emerging in their management.
Keywords: acute kidney injury; dialysis; intensive care units;
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) infers directly in functional capacity, independence and therefore quality of life (QOL).
To compare the physical fitness and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease submitted on hemodialysis (G1) and predialysis treatment (G2).
A cross-sectional study, 54 patients with CKD, 27 of the G1 group (58.15 ±
10.84 years), 27 of G2 group (62.04 ± 16.56 years). There were
cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric measurements, respiratory muscle
strength was measured by the inspiratory pressure (MIP) and expiratory (MEP)
maximum measured in the manometer, six-minute walk (TC6'), cardiopulmonary
exercise test, sit and stand one minute test (TSL1') and the Short-Form
Questionary (SF-36) to assess QOL. The patients presented disease of stage
between 2 and 5. It was applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and
No statistically significant difference was found between G1 and G2 in
Patients with CKD had reduced functional capacity and QOL, and hemodialysis, statistically, didn't have showed negative repercussions when compared with pre-dialysis patients.
Keywords: health evaluation; hemodialysis, home; quality of life; renal dialysis;
Hopelessness, suicide ideation and depression symptoms affect life quality and expectancy of chronic kidney disease patients.
To verify whether there are differences in hopelessness, suicide ideation and depression symptoms between chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis or transplant recipients. We also analyzed the influence of sociodemographic factors in these symptoms.
Cross-sectional study in which 50 clinically stable chronic hemodialysis patients and 50 renal transplant patients matched by gender and age. Instruments-Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
BHS: 2% of each group scoring > 8 (
There was no difference in the intensity of hopelessness, suicide ideation and depression symptoms between stable hemodialysis and transplant patients. Not performing a labor activity and receiving the transplant from deceased donor lead to more depressive symptoms. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms and the finding of suicide ideation in both modalities of renal replacement therapy point to the need to monitor and care for those patients.
Keywords: depression; kidney transplantation; renal dialysis; suicidal ideation;
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially in dialyses population.
To determine the overall survival rate; the epidemiological and clinical profiles; the comorbidities and the variables associated with survival of the patients undergoing hemodialysis.
This is a longitudinal and descriptive study with 162 patients undergoing hemodialysis, at the University Hospital. The categorical variables were described by frequency and percentage; numerical variables by mean and standard-deviation. The analysis by Cox Regression model was used to study the influence of several clinical and demographic variables in survival rates. Kaplan Meyer model was used to construct the survival curves of the significant variables.
The mean age was 48.09 years, and the monthly family income and level of
education were reduced in most of the patients studied. Hypertension was the
main comorbidity associated with CKD in this population, followed by
The rate of survival was considered low compared others studies and was decreasing over the years, not representing improvements despite technological advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approachs. Advanced age, hypoalbuminemia and anemia are strong predictors of mortality.
Keywords: mortality; renal dialysis; survival rate;
Metabolic syndrome (MS) has a high prevalence in hemodialysis' patients and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD).
To evaluate the prevalence of MS in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and the difference in its prevalence according to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria.
We evaluated HD patients in two outpatienclinics in Fortaleza, with dialysis vintage of aleas3 months and aged 18 + years. The patients underwenmeasuremenof waiscircumference, blood pressure (BP), dosages of glucose, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol in fasting.
115 patients were included and the prevalence of MS was 41.7% according to the NCEP-ATP III and 42.6% according to the IDF. Among the 48 patients with a diagnosis of MS according to the NCEPATP III, 87.5% were diagnosed by the IDF. Among the 67 patients withouMS by NCEP-ATP III, 89.5% were nodiagnosed by means of the IDF. The variables of MS according to the NCEP which had a higher prevalence were abnormal HDL-chol in 83.4% of patients and BP altered or use of antihypertensive drugs in 81.3%.
The prevalence of MS in the study population was high, regardless of the criteria used. The variables thacontributed mosto the diagnosis of MS were dyslipidemia and blood pressure. Routine assessmenof the diagnosis of MS in HD should be implemented, since patients with MS have an increase in the number of hospitalizations and in the risk of cardiovascular events.
Keywords: diagnosis; metabolic syndrome X; renal dialysis;
Recent studies show increased prevalence of Cognitive Dysfunction in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.
To evaluate this association in users enrolled in the Family Health Unit Ponte.
We studied a sample of 246 elderly. We assessed cognitive function using the Mini Mental State Examination and the Glomerular Filtration Rate using the equation Modification of Diet in Renal Disease. The Glomerular Filtration Rate values obtained (ml/min/1,73 m2) were divided into three categories: < 60.00, 60 to 89.99 and ≥ 90. We collected additional variables from the Medical Support Service and studied the data using bivariate analyzes and logistic regression models.
The groups with Glomerular Filtration Rate < 60 and ≥ 90 had a higher prevalence of Cognitive Dysfunction, irrespective of other factors. The odds ratios were, respectively, of 4.534 (95%CI: 1.257 to 16.356) and 3.302 (95% CI: 1.434 to 7.607).
According to the literature, we found higher prevalence of Cognitive Dysfunction in the group with Glomerular Filtration Rate < 60. The high prevalence of Cognitive Dysfunction in users with GFR ≥ 90 is described in some studies and may be caused by situations that lead to overestimation of that rate, as the states of cachexia, or situations of glomerular hyperfiltration.
The relationship between renal function and the prevalence of Cognitive Dysfunction was not linear, but rather in a parabolic shape. Further studies are needed to explain this relationship and to determine the need for monitoring Cognitive Dysfunction in patients with impaired renal function.
Keywords: glomerular filtration rate; kidney function tests; mild cognitive impairment; renal insufficiency, chronic;
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide. Nonetheless, little is known about its features in Brazil.
To identify prevalence and factors associated with CKD among hospitalized patients in a university hospital.
We randomly selected 826 medical records of patients admitted in 2009 in the medical inpatient unit. We defined CKD as the presence of medical diagnosis or personal history. We collected a number of clinical and demographic information and these variables were compared between patients with and without CKD.
CKD prevalence was 12.7%. Patients with CKD differed from patients without
CKD prevalence among patients in a medical inpatient unit was high and CKD patients were more complex, as they were older and had a great number of co-morbidities, reflecting a greater risk of death during hospitalization.
Keywords: hypertension; kidney failure, chronic; risk factors;
Sarcopenia is a chronic condition associated with physiological aging process and is defined by the reduction of the mass, muscle strength and function. In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), sarcopenia is prevalent and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and the occurrence of cardiovascular complications. By analyzing sarcopenia in patients with renal insufficiency, complex mechanisms that contribute to loss of muscle mass are highlighted, such as activation of mediators that stimulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (SUP) ATP-dependent, inflammation, metabolic acidosis, angiotensin II and some hormonal factors. The therapeutic approach to sarcopenia in CKD includes exercises, correction of metabolic acidosis, hormone replacement therapy and insulin resistance. Thus, it is of paramount importance early recognition of sarcopenia in this population, in order to establish effective therapeutic interventions, thus avoiding the full range of complications associated with muscle wasting in CKD.
Keywords: kidney failure, chronic; malnutrition; muscle strength; sarcopenia;
Resveratrol (RESV) is a polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries and peanuts, and its processed foods as red wine. RESV possesses a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer, chemopreventive, neuroprotective, renal lipotoxicity preventative, and renal protective effects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that polyphenols promote cardiovascular health. Furthermore, RESV can ameliorate several types of renal injury in animal models, including diabetic nephropathy, hyperuricemic, drug-induced injury, aldosterone-induced injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis-related injury, and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, RESV can prevent the increase in vasoconstrictors, such as angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), as well as intracellular calcium, in mesangial cells. Together, these findings suggest a potential role for RESV as a supplemental therapy for the prevention of renal injury.
Keywords: angiotensina II; endotelina-1; polifenóis; substâncias protetoras;
This review will focus on long-term outcomes after acute kidney injury (AKI). Surviving AKI patients have a higher late mortality compared with those admitted without AKI. Recent studies have claimed that long-term mortality in patients after AKI varied from 15% to 74% and older age, presence of previous co-morbidities, and the incomplete recovery of renal function have been identified as risk factors for reduced survival. AKI is also associated with progression to chronic kidney (CKD) disease and the decline of renal function at hospital discharge and the number and severity of AKI episodes have been associated with progression to CKD. IN the most studies, recovery of renal function is defined as non-dependence on renal replacement therapy which is probably too simplistic and it is expected in 60-70% of survivors by 90 days. Further studies are needed to explore the long-term prognosis of AKI patients.
Keywords: evolução clínica; evolução fatal; lesão renal aguda; mortalidade; recuperação de função fisiológica;
To describe the clinical and laboratory profile of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) of the collapsing subtype in association with infection by parvovirus B19 (PVB19).
Female patient, 37 years old, mulatto, developed pharyngalgia and fever with partial improvement after penicillin. After one week we observed reduced urinary output and lower limb edema. Smoker, family and personal history negative for hypertension, diabetes or kidney disease. Patient presented with olyguria, hypertension and edema, also hypochromic microcytic hypoproliferative anemia, nephritic range proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and renal dysfunction. All rheumatologic investigation, HIV and hepatitis serology were negative. Unremarkable renal ultrasound. PCR positive for PVB19 in bone marrow aspirate and blood and renal biopsy conclusive of collapsing FSGS subtype. Spontaneous remission occurred within two weeks of the profile. The blood PVB19 PCR was repeated within a month and resulted negative. This finding demonstrated PVB19 acute infection or viral reactivation in association with collapsing FSGS.
There is demonstrated the temporal association of PVB19 viremia and collapsing FSGS, due primary infection or viral reactivation. The association of collapsing FSGS and PVB19 is described in the literature, demonstrating virus presence in kidney tissue, but the real relationship of virus in the pathogenesis of this glomerulopathy remains unclear.
Keywords: glomerulosclerose segmentar e focal; parvovirus B19 humano; síndrome nefrótica; glomerulosclerosis, focal segmental; nephrotic syndrome; parvovirus B19, human;
To report the use of Eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) after renal transplantation. A 16 year-old patient diagnosed with chronic kidney disease since 2010, due to aHUS, under dialysis. kidney transplantation by deceased donor: February/2012. She showed good clinical evolution until the 14th postoperative day, when he developed a fever, oliguria, worsening of renal function [serum creatinine (CRs): 4.0 mg/dl] and signs of hemolysis [platelets: 110,000 mm3; hemoglobin (Hb): 4.5 g/dL; LDH: 3366 U/L]. Renal biopsy of the graft: thrombotic microangiopathy. Treated with handling blood products (fresh plasma) and plasmapheresis, with improvement of renal function (serum creatinine: 1.46 mg/dl). A week after this complication, fever anemia, signs of hemolysis and ITU restarted then it was handled with ciprofloxacin, methylprednisolone pulse therapy and plasma transfusion (Platelets: 43,000 mm3; Hb: 6.0 mg/dl, reticulocytes; 1.3%, haptoglobin < 5.8 mg/dl, HDL: 1181 U/L). After clinical worsening, it was started a therapy with Eculizumab, 900 mg in every five days for two weeks. There was some progress with good clinical response, characterized by improved renal function, stabilization of aHUS and discharged in five days. Since then, she keeps using Eculizumab 900mg each 15 days with the renal and haematological normalization (Platelets: 160,000 mm3; Hb: 11.4 g/dL). The use of Eculizumab was useful in controlling the ongoing manifestation of aHUS and transplant preservation.
Keywords: síndrome hemolíticourêmica; terapêutica; transplante; hemolytic-uremic syndrome; therapeutics; transplantation;
Leprosy is still a public health concern in Brazil, where more than 30,000 new cases are detected every year. There are few reports of this mycobacteriosis in imunossupressed pacients, despite the increasing number of solid organ transplantation and the use of post-transplant drugs in this country. The autors describe a case of multibacillary leprosy in a renal transplant recipient, detected 12 years after the procedure, and discuss the therapy, adverse effects and management of leprosy reactions in pacients imunosupressed by drugs.
Keywords: hanseníase; hanseníase multibacilar; infecções por micobactéria não tuberculosa; mycobacterium leprae; transplante de rim; transplante heterólogo; heterologous; kidney transplantation; leprosy, lepromatous; leprosy, multibacillary; mycobacterium infections, nontuberculous; mycobacterium leprae; transplantation;
Male, 21 years old, admitted with nausea, fatigue, appetite loss, headache and hypertension. Blood tests showed Cr: 3.9 mg% U: 100 mg% and Total Calcium 14 mg/dl. Ultrasonography and renal biopsy were consistent with nephrocalcinosis. There has been gradual improvement in renal function and calcium levels after vigorous hydration and furosemide. However, after 1 year, renal calcium deposits persist, corticomedullary ratio reduced in ultrasound and stable creatinine of 1.4 mg/dl. Previous cases showed acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis with little calcium deposits in the renal interstitium. In this case we found severe nephrocalcinosis associated with nephrosclerosis. Our objective is to report the occurrence of acute kidney Injury with nephrocalcinosis associated with use of anabolic steroid and provide a review of the matter.
Keywords: esteroides; hipercalcemia; lesão renal aguda; nefrocalcinose; acute kidney injury; hypercalcemia; nephrocalcinosis; steroids;