Instructions to Authors

Scope and Editorial Policy

The scope of the Brazilian Journal of Nephrology (BJN) (Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia) is to contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge and professional practice in Nephrology through the publication of relevant original studies in the areas of basic and clinical research.

Manuscripts written in Portuguese and English can be submitted to BJN, but English submissions are preferred. Brazilians authors are encouraged to submit two versions, one in each language. For manuscripts submitted in Portuguese, authors must also provide title, key words, abstract, and legends of tables and figures in English.

The online journal has an open access under the attribution license of Creative Commons BY (http://creativecommons.org/licences).

The submission is free of charge. If accepted for publication, the copyright of the manuscript is automatically transferred to the Brazilian Society of Nephrology (Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia). The content of manuscripts must not have been previously published or submitted to other journals. To publish a part or the whole content in another journal, written approval from the editors is required. The content and statements of manuscripts are the authors' responsibility.

Review Process

Manuscripts are accepted based on originality, relevance of the topic, and quality of the scientific methodology as well as compliance of the journal regulations. Manuscripts submitted with a format other than that described in this document may be returned to the sender. Submitted manuscripts undergo a preliminary evaluation carried out by up to two members of the editorial team, based on the following criteria: a) relevance of the manuscript; b) correctness of the statistical analysis; c) adequacy of the methodological approach; and d) relevance of conclusions. Manuscripts approved by the editorial team are sent to two external experts for a single blind peer review. About one third of submitted papers is approved for publication.

Legal and Ethical Considerations

The BJN follows the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), entitled (http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/).

The journal follows the code of ethical conduct in publication, recommended by the Committee on Publication Ethics - COPE (http://publicationethics.org).

AUTHORHIP

All authors of the paper should have had enough participation in the drafting of the manuscript to assume responsibility for its content. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommends that authorship be based on the following criteria:

  1. Substantial contributions to the design or development of the study;
  2. Participation in the collection, analysis and interpretation of the data;
  3. Participation in the writing of the article or in its critical revision;
  4. Approval of the final version.

The full ICMJE recommendations are available at: http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

A reliable peer review process and consequent credibility of published articles depend in part on how conflicts of interest are handled during writing, peer review, and editorial processes. Conflict of interest occurs when authors (or the author's institution), reviewers, or editors have financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence (bias) their actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). The effect of such relationships can vary from negligible to having great potential to influence judgment; however, not all relationships are true conflicts of interest. The potential for conflict of interest should be assessed based on the personal perception that the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Financial relationships (such as employment, consultancy, stock ownership, payments, and expert testimony) are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal, authors, and science itself. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion.

INFORMED CONSENT

Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Patient identification, including name, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in the text, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent with such purpose requires that the identifiable patient sees the manuscript before it is submitted. Authors should identify individuals who provided writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance.  Identifications should be provided if they are essential. Complete anonymity might be difficult; however, informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.  The published article should inform when the informed consent was obtained.

ETHICAL PRINCIPALS

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

Manuscripts Submission

Manuscripts are submitted online to the BJN at: https://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/jbn-scielo.

The manuscripts may be submitted in Portuguese and/or English, and simultaneous submission, in part or in full, to other journals is not allowed. The BJN considers unethical the duplicate or partial publication of the same research. Tools for locating text similarity are used by the journal to detect plagiarism. In case plagiarism is detected, the BJN follows the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors do Committee on Publication Ethics - COPE (http://publicationethics.org/).

All authors must associate the ORCID registration number with their profile in the submission system (https://orcid.org/).

The submission of a manuscript to BJN must be accompanied by the following documents (via system - Step 5: Details & Comments):

  1. Cover letter, signed by all authors, according to previously defined model (Download). If the signature of an author is missing, it will be interpreted as his or hers disinterest in or disapproval of the publication, and the name will be, therefore, excluded from the authors list;
  2. Copy of the letter of approval from the Ethics Committee of the institution that approved the study - when referring to interventions (diagnostic or therapeutic) in human beings;
  3. Main document (See Structure and Preparation of Manuscripts).

Article Types

EDITORIAL

An in-depth critical commentary prepared as a response to an Editor invitation and/or submitted by a person with noteworthy experience on the subject.

  • An abstract is not mandatory;
  • The text must not exceed 900 words;
  • The paper must have up to 7 references.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Original articles should present unpublished research results and contain all relevant information so that the reader may reproduce the study or evaluate its results and conclusions. They are submitted in one of two fields: basic science and clinical research. The manuscripts are classified in six areas of Nephrology: a) Acute Renal Injury; b) Chronic Kidney Disease; c) Dialysis and Extracorporeal therapies; d) Epidemiology and Clinical Nephrology; e) Pediatric Nephrology; f) Renal Transplantation.

The manuscript should follow the guideline below:

  • Have a structured abstract (Introduction, Methods, Results and Conclusion), with up to 250 words;
  • No more than 7 key words;
  • The body of the paper must contain Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusion sections, and have up to 5000 words;
  • Clinical implications and limitations of the study should be highlighted;
  • When appropriate, the Methods section should provide detailed study design, location, participants, clinical outcomes of interest, and intervention;
  • Have no more than 40 references.
REVIEW ARTICLE

Reviews are preferably requested by the Editor to specialists in a particular area. The objective of these articles is to express and critically evaluate the knowledge available on a specific topic, commenting on studies from other authors and using a broad reference base, or on occasion, responding to a demand from readers concerning a specific topic.

The manuscript should contain:

  • An abstract, not necessarily structured, of no more than 250 words;
  • No more than 7 key words;
  • The text should contain Introduction, Discussion, and Conclusion sections as well as other subdivisions, when appropriate (e.g., "Clinical Application", "Treatment"), with up to 6000 words;
  • No more than 90 references.
UPDATE ARTICLE

This type of article addresses current information relevant to the clinical practice, and are more concise than review articles. These should be, preferably, a response to an editors' invitation, and, occasionally, from independent submissions.

The manuscript should contain:

  • An abstract, not necessarily structured, of no more than 250 words;
  • No more than 7 key words;
  • The text should contain Introduction, Discussion, and Conclusion, with up to 2000 words;
  • No more than 40 references.
PERSPECTIVE/OPINION

These manuscripts are preferably requested by the Editor to a specialist in a particular area, and aim at the comprehensive presentation and discussion of scientific issues in the field of nephrology. This type of article should be elaborated by experienced researchers in the field or by experts of recognized knowledge.

The manuscript should contain:

  • An abstract, not necessarily structured, of no more than 250 words;
  • No more than 7 key words;
  • The text should contain Introduction, Discussion, and Conclusion, with up to 3000 words;
  • No more than 40 references.
BRIEF COMMUNICATION

A brief communication is a report on a single subject, which should be concise but conclusive. Like original articles, these papers should present unpublished material, but that have less significance and of particular interest in the area of nephrology, presenting preliminary results of immediate relevance.

The manuscript should contain:

  • A structured abstract (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Conclusion), with up to 250 words;
  • No more than 7 key words;
  • The text should be divided in Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, with up to 1500 words;
  • No more than 15 references;
  • No more than three illustrations (figures and/or tables).
IMAGES IN NEPHROLOGY

Images in Nephrology publication aims to present content of educational value. The images should be accompanied by a description, as well as its clinical interpretation and differential diagnosis.

CASE REPORT

Case reports are presentations of experiences based on the study of a particular case. A case report should have at least one of the following characteristics to be published in the Journal: a) special interest to the clinical research community; b) a rare case that is particularly useful to demonstrate a mechanism or a difficulty in diagnosis; c) a new diagnostic method; d) a new or modified treatment; e) a text that demonstrates relevant findings, present a well documented case and have no ambiguity.

The manuscript should contain:

  • An abstract, not necessarily structured, of no more than 250 words;
  • No more than 7 key words;
  • Text should be divided in: Introduction (explaining the relevance of the case); Structured presentation of the case (i.e., identification of the patient, complaints and previous history, personal and family background, clinical exams); and Discussion, with up to 1500 words;
  • No more than two illustrations (figures and/or tables);
  • No more than 20 references.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

The manuscript may be a commentary about published material, or may present new data and clinical observations. All authors (maximum of five) should sign the letter.

The guidelines are:

  • No need for an abstract;
  • Text with up to 500 words;
  • Maximum of one table and one figure;
  • No more than 5 references.

Structure and Preparation of Manuscripts

The main document should be sent in a word file (.doc or .rtf), double spaced, font size of 12, margin of 3 cm on each side, pages numbered in Arabic numerals, and each section should start in a new page, consecutively: a) title page; b) summary and key words; c) text body; d) acknowledgments; e) references; f) tables and subtitles (excluding images, which must be sent separately in .jpg or .tiff format).

  1. Title Page
    • Title of the manuscript: should be concise and complete, describing the subject to which it refers (superfluous words should be omitted). For manuscripts submitted in Portuguese, an English version of the title must be included;
    • Running title of the manuscript that must correspond to the Portuguese and/or English version of the title;
    • Names of the authors, indicating the respective academic degree;
    • Authors' affiliations with the hierarchical units presented in descending order (university, school, and department). The names of the institutions should be presented in full in the institution's original language or in the English version when Latin words are not used. Affiliations should not be accompanied by the authors' titles or mini-CVs. All authors must provide an ORCID ID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID, http://orcid.org/) at the time of submission by entering it in the user profile in the submission system;
    • Corresponding author, with the respective e-mail;
    • Name of the funding agency of the study;
    • Title, year, and institution of submission, for manuscripts based on an academic thesis;
    • Name of the event, location and date of presentation, for manuscripts based on a presentation at a scientific meeting;
    • Declaration of conflict of interest;
    • Indication of authors' contribution.
  2. Abstract and key words
    • Abstract: including introduction, procedures and conclusions of the study (maximum of 250 words). Structured abstracts should present, at the beginning of each paragraph, the subsections names (Introduction, Method, Results and Discussion);
    • Key words: ewords that represent the subject of the study, should be presented in numbers of 3 to 7, supplied by the author, based on DECS - Descritores em Ciências da Saúde (http://decs.bvs.br/) or MeSH - Medical Subject Headings (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh).
  3. Text

    The main text must obey the required structure for each article category (See Types of Articles). Citations and references cited in the legends of table and figures should be numbered consecutively in the order that they appear in the text (numerical index). The references should be cited in the text with a superscript number and without parentheses as in the following example (References1).

    Figures (photographs, graphs, drawings, etc.) should be sent individually in JPG or TIFF format (in high resolution - 300 dpi) and can be colored. They should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order in which they were cited in the text and sufficiently clear to permit their reproduction. Figure captions should be given together with the tables, after the references. Photocopies are not accepted. For figures from previously published works, authors must provide permission in writing for their reproduction. This authorization must accompany the manuscripts submitted for publication.

    Other aspects to consider:

    • Statistical analysis: he authors should demonstrate that the statistical procedures were appropriate to test the hypothesis of the study, and that the results were correctly interpreted. The levels of statistical significance (e.g., p < 0,05; p < 0,01; p < 0,001) should be reported.
    • Abbreviations: should be indicated in the text upon the first use. Thereafter, the full name should not be repeated.
    • Name of medication: the generic name should be used.
    • Citation of machines and equipment: all machines and equipment cited should include the model and name, state and country of manufacturer.
  4. Acknowledgments

    Acknowledgments should include all people, groups or institutions that deserve recognition, but are not included as authors; acknowledgment for financial support, technical assistance, etc., should appear before the references.

  5. References

    References should be numbered sequentially, in the same order that they were mentioned in the text and identified with superscript numbers. The references must comply with the standard defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors - ICMJE ( https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html).The title and journal name should be abbreviated according to the style presented by the Index Medicus: abbreviations of journal titles (http://www2.bg.am.poznan.pl/czasopisma/medicus.php?lang=eng). Personal communications, unpublished studies, or ongoing studies should be cited only when absolutely necessary, but should not be included in the list of references; only mentioned in the text footer.

  6. Examples:

    Articles from journals (up to six authors)

    Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.

    Articles from journals (more than six authors)

    Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.

    Articles without the name of the author

    21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.

    Entire books

    Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

    Book Chapters

    Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

    Books for which the editors (organizers) are authors

    Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

    Thesis

    Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

    Papers presented at meetings

    Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.

    Journals in electronic format

    Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htmArticle

  7. Tables and Legends

    Tables and legends must comply with the specifications defined for each article type (See Article Types). In their electronic version, tables must be presented in .doc (Microsoft Word) or .xls (Microsoft Excel) format.

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